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    京ICP備18058150號-5
    > 戰史風云

    吳越之戰:臥薪嘗膽終復國

      吳越之戰,是春秋末期位居長江下游的兩個諸侯國吳和越之間進行的最后一次爭霸戰爭。自公元前510年開始,持續至公元前475年,歷時共35年,中經吳伐越的槜李之戰、越伐吳的夫椒之戰、笠澤之戰和姑蘇圍困戰,最終以吳的滅亡和越的勝利而告結束。

      公元前514年,闔閭登上吳國王位,即任用逃亡到吳國的原楚國貴族伍員(伍子胥)和齊國的孫武,改革內政,“立城郭,設守備,實倉廩,治兵庫”,擴充軍隊,加強戰備,并制定了“西破強楚,北威齊晉,南服越人”的戰略方針。其時,定都會稽(今浙江紹興)。據有今浙江北部地區的越國,領土狹小,人口稀少,經濟文化發展相對落后。楚為聯越制吳,積極扶植越王允常,從而使越力量迅速壯大。公元前510年,吳國進攻越國,兩國爭戰就此展開,雙方你來我往,開始了長期的拉鋸戰。

    吳越之戰:臥薪嘗膽終復國.jpg

      公元前496年,吳王闔閭因為攻楚時相鄰的越國常來襲擊騷擾,心中惱怒,便下令伐越。越王勾踐迎擊,雙方在欈李(今浙江嘉興西南)爆發了一場著名決戰。勾踐先以敢死之士沖擊吳軍,又以“罪人之行”在陣前“自剄”激勵士氣,乘勢大破吳軍。越將靈姑浮以戈擊吳王闔廬,傷其大腳趾。闔廬退師,死于離檇李七里之遙的陘地。他的兒子夫差繼立為王,重用大臣伯嚭。

      夫差為報父仇,大力整飭軍旅,積極備戰。孫武和伍子胥整頓軍備,以輔佐夫差完成報仇雪恥大業。夫差派人朝夕立于庭門,每逢夫差出入,就向他發問:“夫差!你忘記越王的殺父之仇了么?”夫差即大聲回答:“哼,我怎么敢忘記!”

      勾踐見夫差勵精圖治,積極練兵備戰以復仇,非常焦急,想先發制人,隨于公元前494年春天調集軍隊從水上向吳國發起進攻。吳王夫差見時機成熟,率10萬精兵,以子胥為大將,伯嚭為副將,迎擊越軍,雙方激戰于夫椒。吳軍恥喪先王,誓死圖報,在孫武、伍子胥的策劃下,吳軍在夜間布置了許多詐兵,分為兩翼,高舉火把,只見在黑暗的夜幕中火光連成一片,迅速向越軍陣地移動,殺聲震天,越軍驚恐萬狀,軍心動搖,夫差更是親立船頭,秉袍擊鼓,全軍勇氣倍增。恰好北風大起,波濤洶涌,吳軍大艦順流揚帆而下,俱用強弓勁弩,箭如飛蝗。越兵迎風,無法抵敵,大敗而走。逼得越王勾踐僅以5000甲兵固守會稽山(今浙江紹興)。越之危亡已系于一發。

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