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    京ICP備18058150號-5
    > 文史百科

    晉朝文化:學術思想在兩晉時期有著重要發展

      漢代以前,政治主權完全在華夏族,漢代以后,政治主權不全在華夏族,邊疆民族帶來的草原游牧文化也融于中原文化。時天下大亂,士族文人多不以道義為重,儒學中衰。曠達之士,目擊衰亂,不甘隱避,則托為放逸,遂開清談之風。晉室之興,世亂未已,向秀之徒,益尚玄風。玄學與印度東傳之佛教交匯,中國文化逐漸轉變為儒釋道融合之狀況。

      學術思想兩晉時期是中國文化發展的重要時期之一,文化中心為建康、洛陽,在官方教育方面,晉朝在中國歷史上首創了國子學,以后歷朝歷代延續,直到封建社會末期。在教育學領域還是中國最早把書法作為教育課程進行推廣的時期,在官方提倡書法教育,設立書博士。這是因為從司馬懿到司馬炎時代都有重視書法的傳統,在《法書要錄》中記載魏國的五位書法家中,司馬師、司馬昭兄弟與韋誕、虞松、鐘會被認為是魏國書法名家。此時期是一個文化開創、沖突又融合的時代。由于儒教獨尊的地位被打破,使得該時期的文化走向多元發展,不斷的開發新領域與新學說。當代學派除儒教外還有由本土發展的玄學 、道教及由印度東傳的佛教,其中道教及佛教在該期間逐漸擴展到一般人民的生活 。

       邊疆民族的南下帶來草原文化,東晉結合中原文化及江南文化,之后南北雙方形成文化交流或民族融合。兩晉的社會問題主要圍繞在世族上,世族是構成社會的統治階層,深深影響該時期。當代文化脫離儒教影響而發展出純哲學、純文學、純藝術、純史學及新的科學技術。例如王羲之及王獻之的書法 、顧愷之的繪畫。 在整個魏晉南北朝期間,由于邊疆民族內遷、北方人群的南下,造成文化大交流及融合。由于儒學一統的局面打破以及玄道佛的興起,使得學術研究朝向多元化。各國為了生存或戰爭,多少推行一些改革措施以確保某些地區農業與手工業的發展。這些都使得科學技術大幅提升。道家對中國科技史亦帶來貢獻,其外丹、內丹修煉包含多種科學。外丹包括了黃白,也就是煉金術。

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